Home > Data structuring and enhancement

Data structuring and enhancement

Organising data captured from one or various sources into a uniform structure (such as a database), or augmenting digital information (e.g. enhancing a digital image).

See the tabs in the box at the bottom for a list of People and Projects using this category of method at Oxford. The category comprises the subheadings below; click on the expand button next to each one to see a list of detailed methods, with definitions taken from arts-humanities.net. The links on each individual method take you to the national list of related projects there.

2d modelling - raster : Refers to the design of 2-dimensional representations/reconstructions of objects or structures using a raster data model and specialised software. They can be used alone or as components of 3D models.
2d modelling - vector : Refers to the design of 2-dimensional representations/reconstructions of objects or structures using a vector data model and specialised software. They can be used alone or as components of 3D models.
3d modelling - interactive : The term '3D modelling - interactive', or ‘Virtual Reality’ (VR), refers to the design of interactive 3-dimensional graphical representations of objects or places. These can be reconstructions of existing or historical places, abstract systems, or repres
3d modelling - vector : Refers to the design of 3-dimensional representations/reconstructions of objects or structures using a vector data model and specialised software.
Animation : Traditional cel animation consists of photographs of drawings (frames), each of which differs slightly from the next, arranged in sequence on film. In order to create the illusion of movement without jerkiness, between 12 and 70 frames per second must be
Graphical rendering : The term ‘rendering’, in a computer graphics context, refers to the process of generating an image from a digital model, by computing its surface qualities, such as colour, shading, smoothness and texture. Rendering can achieve both photorealistic and non
Virtual world modelling : The design and creation of a three dimensional environment, often undertaken with proprietary tools distributed with video games. Usually the term ‘virtual worlds’ refers to multi-user online environments. Some virtual worlds are designed to simulate a re
Sound compression : In this context, ‘sound compression’, or ‘audio compression’, refers to techniques used to eliminate redundant information of a sound file in order to reduce its size, enabling more efficient storage and transmission.
Sound editing : Refers to the techniques used to mix, adjust, optimise and fix sound signals, either for audio or video files. Such editing can include speeding up or slowing down the sound, cutting portions, fading between clips, combining multiple audio files, applying
Sound encoding : Refers to the transformation of sound signals into a defined data structure. Sound can be encoded into different formats for a variety of purposes. These include the use of MIDI, stereo or surround sound for playback, or compressing the file to enable eas
Sound encoding - MIDI : Refers to the transformation of sound signals into a MIDI-conforming data structure. ‘MIDI’ stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface, and allows synchronisation and data sharing between different electronic musical instruments.
Video and moving image compression : Refers to techniques used to eliminate redundant information of moving image files in order to reduce its size, thereby facilitating its transmission. Like other forms of compression, video compression can be either lossless or lossy. However, as lossy c
Video editing : Refers to the techniques used to manipulate moving image data into a defined structure. Linear editing is where the video is edited in scene order, and was performed when footage only existed in a videotape format. In non-linear editing, which is usually
Cataloguing and indexing : Cataloguing and indexing refer to systems that record and order the semantics and syntax of the data, to enable resource discovery and collection management, to improve searchability and access and to allow the data to be collected and shared.
Record linkages structuring : The term ‘record linkage’ refers to techniques used to link records from different sources, by finding entries that refer to the same entity (e.g. person) in two or more files. These entries can be combined to form individual micro records.
Geo-referencing and projection : Geo-referencing is a technique used to convert images from image coordinates to real-world coordinates to establish spatial locations of geographical features in terms of map projections or coordinate systems. It can also be used to establish the relation
Image enhancement : The term ‘image enhancement’, or ‘image editing’, refers to techniques used to improve the appearance of digital, as well as analogue, images. Both raster and vector files can be manipulated using specialist software.
Image restoration and rectification : The term ‘image restoration’ refers to techniques used to digitally rectify known, measured or accurately surmised degradations of images, for example historic photographs, sketches and paintings.
Photogrammetry : Photogrammetry is a technique used to obtain reliable measurements or information from digital or analogue photographs (photo-grammes). It is often classified as a type of remote sensing, as objects are measured without being touched.
Coding and standardisation : In this context, the term ‘Coding and Standardisation’ refers to the process of translating large amounts of data from diverse sources into standardised codes for data processing.
Data modelling : Refers to the development of a theoretical framework - based on abstract models that describe how data is represented and accessed - by which information is structured for the use in a database system.
Lemmatisation : Refers to techniques used to group a set of forms of a word (a lexeme) together under a single headword, or lemma – the form of the word that would be listed in a dictionary, glossary or index. This enables different inflected forms of the same word to be
Text encoding - descriptive : Descriptive text encoding, or markup, refers to the addition of character and symbols, or tags, at certain places in a text in order to convey information about concrete and abstract concepts (e.g. genres, topical subjects); its logical structure (e.g. id
Text encoding - presentational : Refers to the addition of character and symbols, or tags, at certain places in a text in order to convey information about its visual appearance. Presentational text encoding, or markup, is used in WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) word processing so
Text encoding - referential : Text encoding - referential</em> Refers to the addition of character and symbols, or tags, at certain places in a text in order to convey information about external elements. These can include hypermedia, or hyperlinks that take the user further down the
Projects (143)
15cBOOKTRADE - An Evidence-based Assessment and Visualization of the Distribution, Sale, and Reception of Books in the Renaissance Medieval & Modern Languages Faculty Cristina Dondi
A New Edition of Leonardo's Codex Leicester for Bill Gates Trinity College Martin Kemp
A Study of Transnational Jewish Relief Networks and the Emergence of Jewish Internationalism in Central and Eastern Europe, 1860s – 1870s. History Faculty Milena Zeidler
Agora Oxford e-Research Centre
Ancient Cyprus in the Ashmolean Museum Ashmolean Museum Alison Roberts
Anglo-Saxon Discovery Ashmolean Museum
APGRD - Archive of Performances of Greek and Roman Drama Classical Languages Felix Budelmann
Archives and Artefacts: Exploring the past through the work of E.T. Leeds and A2A Ashmolean Museum
Ashmolean Museum Collections Management System Ashmolean Museum Nick Mayhew
Automatic annotation of the Spoken BNC Phonetics Laboratory John Pybus
Autonomous Morphology in Diachrony: comparative evidence from the Romance languages Medieval & Modern Languages Faculty John Charles Smith
BEAM Bodleian Libraries Research & Learning Services Susan Thomas
Beazley Archive Online Databases Classical Archaeology
Bibliography of British and Irish History History Faculty Ian Archer
Bibliotheca Academica Translationum; Translations of Classical Scholarship 1701-1917 Ancient History Oswyn Murray
Blockbooks Bodleian Libraries Research & Learning Services Neil Jefferies
Bodleian First Folio Bodleian Digital Library Systems & Services Pip Willcox
Bodleian Library Broadside Ballads Bodleian Libraries Research & Learning Services
Boethius in Early Medieval Europe English Faculty
Book of Curiosities: An early 11th-century Arabic cosmography Oriental Studies Faculty Jeremy Johns

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People (96)
Abigail Williams Lord White Fellow in English, Professor of Eighteenth-Century Literature English Faculty
Alexander Huber Digital Librarian Bodleian Digital Library Systems & Services
Alexandra Franklin Project Coordinator, Centre for the Study of the Book at University of Oxford Bodleian Libraries Research & Learning Services
Alison Roberts Curator for European and Early Prehistoric Collections, Ashmolean Museum Ashmolean Museum
Alun Edwards Research Officer IT Services
Amanda Flynn Digital Editor Digital Collections Development
Andrew Hankinson Post-doctoral Researcher, Digital Image Archive of Medieval Music Music Faculty
Andrew Meadows Professor of Ancient History Ancient History
Andrew Zisserman Professor Engineering Science
Annamaria Carusi Senior Research Associate Oxford e-Research Centre
Annette Peach History Faculty
Barry Cunliffe Professor Archaeology Institute
Ben Burton English Faculty
Birgit Mikus Research Staff; Project Coordinator German
Chris Howgego Keeper, Heberden Coin Room, Ashmolean Museum Ashmolean Museum
Chris Powell Data Architect Ashmolean Museum
Chris Wingfield Researcher Pitt Rivers Museum
Christine Madsen Head of Digital Programmes Bodleian Libraries Central Services and Administration
Cristina Dondi Oakeshott Senior Research Fellow in the Humanities, Lincoln College Italian
David De Roure Professor of e-Research Oxford e-Research Centre

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