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Data structuring and enhancement

Organising data captured from one or various sources into a uniform structure (such as a database), or augmenting digital information (e.g. enhancing a digital image).

See the tabs in the box at the bottom for a list of People and Projects using this category of method at Oxford. The category comprises the subheadings below; click on the expand button next to each one to see a list of detailed methods, with definitions taken from arts-humanities.net. The links on each individual method take you to the national list of related projects there.

2d modelling - raster : Refers to the design of 2-dimensional representations/reconstructions of objects or structures using a raster data model and specialised software. They can be used alone or as components of 3D models.
2d modelling - vector : Refers to the design of 2-dimensional representations/reconstructions of objects or structures using a vector data model and specialised software. They can be used alone or as components of 3D models.
3d modelling - interactive : The term '3D modelling - interactive', or ‘Virtual Reality’ (VR), refers to the design of interactive 3-dimensional graphical representations of objects or places. These can be reconstructions of existing or historical places, abstract systems, or repres
3d modelling - vector : Refers to the design of 3-dimensional representations/reconstructions of objects or structures using a vector data model and specialised software.
Animation : Traditional cel animation consists of photographs of drawings (frames), each of which differs slightly from the next, arranged in sequence on film. In order to create the illusion of movement without jerkiness, between 12 and 70 frames per second must be
Graphical rendering : The term ‘rendering’, in a computer graphics context, refers to the process of generating an image from a digital model, by computing its surface qualities, such as colour, shading, smoothness and texture. Rendering can achieve both photorealistic and non
Virtual world modelling : The design and creation of a three dimensional environment, often undertaken with proprietary tools distributed with video games. Usually the term ‘virtual worlds’ refers to multi-user online environments. Some virtual worlds are designed to simulate a re
Sound compression : In this context, ‘sound compression’, or ‘audio compression’, refers to techniques used to eliminate redundant information of a sound file in order to reduce its size, enabling more efficient storage and transmission.
Sound editing : Refers to the techniques used to mix, adjust, optimise and fix sound signals, either for audio or video files. Such editing can include speeding up or slowing down the sound, cutting portions, fading between clips, combining multiple audio files, applying
Sound encoding : Refers to the transformation of sound signals into a defined data structure. Sound can be encoded into different formats for a variety of purposes. These include the use of MIDI, stereo or surround sound for playback, or compressing the file to enable eas
Sound encoding - MIDI : Refers to the transformation of sound signals into a MIDI-conforming data structure. ‘MIDI’ stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface, and allows synchronisation and data sharing between different electronic musical instruments.
Video and moving image compression : Refers to techniques used to eliminate redundant information of moving image files in order to reduce its size, thereby facilitating its transmission. Like other forms of compression, video compression can be either lossless or lossy. However, as lossy c
Video editing : Refers to the techniques used to manipulate moving image data into a defined structure. Linear editing is where the video is edited in scene order, and was performed when footage only existed in a videotape format. In non-linear editing, which is usually
Cataloguing and indexing : Cataloguing and indexing refer to systems that record and order the semantics and syntax of the data, to enable resource discovery and collection management, to improve searchability and access and to allow the data to be collected and shared.
Record linkages structuring : The term ‘record linkage’ refers to techniques used to link records from different sources, by finding entries that refer to the same entity (e.g. person) in two or more files. These entries can be combined to form individual micro records.
Geo-referencing and projection : Geo-referencing is a technique used to convert images from image coordinates to real-world coordinates to establish spatial locations of geographical features in terms of map projections or coordinate systems. It can also be used to establish the relation
Image enhancement : The term ‘image enhancement’, or ‘image editing’, refers to techniques used to improve the appearance of digital, as well as analogue, images. Both raster and vector files can be manipulated using specialist software.
Image restoration and rectification : The term ‘image restoration’ refers to techniques used to digitally rectify known, measured or accurately surmised degradations of images, for example historic photographs, sketches and paintings.
Photogrammetry : Photogrammetry is a technique used to obtain reliable measurements or information from digital or analogue photographs (photo-grammes). It is often classified as a type of remote sensing, as objects are measured without being touched.
Coding and standardisation : In this context, the term ‘Coding and Standardisation’ refers to the process of translating large amounts of data from diverse sources into standardised codes for data processing.
Data modelling : Refers to the development of a theoretical framework - based on abstract models that describe how data is represented and accessed - by which information is structured for the use in a database system.
Lemmatisation : Refers to techniques used to group a set of forms of a word (a lexeme) together under a single headword, or lemma – the form of the word that would be listed in a dictionary, glossary or index. This enables different inflected forms of the same word to be
Text encoding - descriptive : Descriptive text encoding, or markup, refers to the addition of character and symbols, or tags, at certain places in a text in order to convey information about concrete and abstract concepts (e.g. genres, topical subjects); its logical structure (e.g. id
Text encoding - presentational : Refers to the addition of character and symbols, or tags, at certain places in a text in order to convey information about its visual appearance. Presentational text encoding, or markup, is used in WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) word processing so
Text encoding - referential : Text encoding - referential</em> Refers to the addition of character and symbols, or tags, at certain places in a text in order to convey information about external elements. These can include hypermedia, or hyperlinks that take the user further down the
Projects (30)
Ashmolean Museum Collections Management System Ashmolean Museum Nick Mayhew
Autonomous Morphology in Diachrony: comparative evidence from the Romance languages Medieval & Modern Languages Faculty John Charles Smith
BEAM Bodleian Libraries Research & Learning Services Susan Thomas
Bibliotheca Academica Translationum; Translations of Classical Scholarship 1701-1917 Ancient History Oswyn Murray
Bodleian Library Broadside Ballads Bodleian Libraries Research & Learning Services
British National Corpus IT Services Lou Burnard
CLARIN Oxford e-Research Centre Martin Wynne
Cultures of Knowledge: Networking the Republic of Letters, 1550–1750 History Faculty Arno Bosse
Digitally Curating Knowledge Creation: Understanding and Recording the Process of Interpreting Cultural and Historical Artefacts Oxford e-Research Centre Ségolène Tarte
Electronic Enlightenment Project Bodleian Libraries Central Services and Administration Robert McNamee
Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature Griffith Institute Jacob Dahl
England: the Other Within: Analysing the English Collections at the Pitt Rivers Museum Pitt Rivers Museum Zena Kamash
European Networking Resources and Information Concerning Cultural Heritage (ENRICH) Project IT Services James Cummings
Forced Migration Online International Development Ian McClelland
futureArch project Bodleian Libraries Research & Learning Services Susan Thomas
Lexicon of Greek Personal Names Ancient History Sebastian Rahtz
Making Britain: South Asian Visions of Home and Abroad 1870-1950 History Faculty Sumita Mukherjee
Oxford Digital Library Bodleian Digital Library Systems & Services Michael Popham
Oxford Text Archive IT Services Sebastian Rahtz
Oxford University Research Archive (ORA) Bodleian Libraries Research & Learning Services Sally Rumsey

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People (14)
Alexandra Franklin Project Coordinator, Centre for the Study of the Book at University of Oxford Bodleian Libraries Research & Learning Services
Alun Edwards Research Officer IT Services
David De Roure Professor of e-Research Oxford e-Research Centre
Gary Lock Professor of Archaeology Archaeology Institute
Greg Kochanski Linguistics, Philology & Phonetics Faculty
Greg Parker Technical Director, Beazley Archive Classical Archaeology
Henriette Roued-Cunliffe Graduate Student Classics Faculty
Ian Archer Fellow and Tutor in Modern History History Faculty
Kevin Page Senior Researcher Oxford e-Research Centre
Meriel Patrick Analyst and Training Officer, Research Support Team IT Services
Nicholas Cole Senior Research Fellow History Faculty
Richard Doe Web Developer IT Services
Richard Ovenden Bodley's Librarian Bodleian Libraries Bodleian Libraries Central Services and Administration
Tom Wrobel Web and database developer Bodleian Digital Library Systems & Services