Home > Data structuring and enhancement

Data structuring and enhancement

Organising data captured from one or various sources into a uniform structure (such as a database), or augmenting digital information (e.g. enhancing a digital image).

See the tabs in the box at the bottom for a list of People and Projects using this category of method at Oxford. The category comprises the subheadings below; click on the expand button next to each one to see a list of detailed methods, with definitions taken from arts-humanities.net. The links on each individual method take you to the national list of related projects there.

2d modelling - raster : Refers to the design of 2-dimensional representations/reconstructions of objects or structures using a raster data model and specialised software. They can be used alone or as components of 3D models.
2d modelling - vector : Refers to the design of 2-dimensional representations/reconstructions of objects or structures using a vector data model and specialised software. They can be used alone or as components of 3D models.
3d modelling - interactive : The term '3D modelling - interactive', or ‘Virtual Reality’ (VR), refers to the design of interactive 3-dimensional graphical representations of objects or places. These can be reconstructions of existing or historical places, abstract systems, or repres
3d modelling - vector : Refers to the design of 3-dimensional representations/reconstructions of objects or structures using a vector data model and specialised software.
Animation : Traditional cel animation consists of photographs of drawings (frames), each of which differs slightly from the next, arranged in sequence on film. In order to create the illusion of movement without jerkiness, between 12 and 70 frames per second must be
Graphical rendering : The term ‘rendering’, in a computer graphics context, refers to the process of generating an image from a digital model, by computing its surface qualities, such as colour, shading, smoothness and texture. Rendering can achieve both photorealistic and non
Virtual world modelling : The design and creation of a three dimensional environment, often undertaken with proprietary tools distributed with video games. Usually the term ‘virtual worlds’ refers to multi-user online environments. Some virtual worlds are designed to simulate a re
Sound compression : In this context, ‘sound compression’, or ‘audio compression’, refers to techniques used to eliminate redundant information of a sound file in order to reduce its size, enabling more efficient storage and transmission.
Sound editing : Refers to the techniques used to mix, adjust, optimise and fix sound signals, either for audio or video files. Such editing can include speeding up or slowing down the sound, cutting portions, fading between clips, combining multiple audio files, applying
Sound encoding : Refers to the transformation of sound signals into a defined data structure. Sound can be encoded into different formats for a variety of purposes. These include the use of MIDI, stereo or surround sound for playback, or compressing the file to enable eas
Sound encoding - MIDI : Refers to the transformation of sound signals into a MIDI-conforming data structure. ‘MIDI’ stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface, and allows synchronisation and data sharing between different electronic musical instruments.
Video and moving image compression : Refers to techniques used to eliminate redundant information of moving image files in order to reduce its size, thereby facilitating its transmission. Like other forms of compression, video compression can be either lossless or lossy. However, as lossy c
Video editing : Refers to the techniques used to manipulate moving image data into a defined structure. Linear editing is where the video is edited in scene order, and was performed when footage only existed in a videotape format. In non-linear editing, which is usually
Cataloguing and indexing : Cataloguing and indexing refer to systems that record and order the semantics and syntax of the data, to enable resource discovery and collection management, to improve searchability and access and to allow the data to be collected and shared.
Record linkages structuring : The term ‘record linkage’ refers to techniques used to link records from different sources, by finding entries that refer to the same entity (e.g. person) in two or more files. These entries can be combined to form individual micro records.
Geo-referencing and projection : Geo-referencing is a technique used to convert images from image coordinates to real-world coordinates to establish spatial locations of geographical features in terms of map projections or coordinate systems. It can also be used to establish the relation
Image enhancement : The term ‘image enhancement’, or ‘image editing’, refers to techniques used to improve the appearance of digital, as well as analogue, images. Both raster and vector files can be manipulated using specialist software.
Image restoration and rectification : The term ‘image restoration’ refers to techniques used to digitally rectify known, measured or accurately surmised degradations of images, for example historic photographs, sketches and paintings.
Photogrammetry : Photogrammetry is a technique used to obtain reliable measurements or information from digital or analogue photographs (photo-grammes). It is often classified as a type of remote sensing, as objects are measured without being touched.
Coding and standardisation : In this context, the term ‘Coding and Standardisation’ refers to the process of translating large amounts of data from diverse sources into standardised codes for data processing.
Data modelling : Refers to the development of a theoretical framework - based on abstract models that describe how data is represented and accessed - by which information is structured for the use in a database system.
Lemmatisation : Refers to techniques used to group a set of forms of a word (a lexeme) together under a single headword, or lemma – the form of the word that would be listed in a dictionary, glossary or index. This enables different inflected forms of the same word to be
Text encoding - descriptive : Descriptive text encoding, or markup, refers to the addition of character and symbols, or tags, at certain places in a text in order to convey information about concrete and abstract concepts (e.g. genres, topical subjects); its logical structure (e.g. id
Text encoding - presentational : Refers to the addition of character and symbols, or tags, at certain places in a text in order to convey information about its visual appearance. Presentational text encoding, or markup, is used in WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) word processing so
Text encoding - referential : Text encoding - referential</em> Refers to the addition of character and symbols, or tags, at certain places in a text in order to convey information about external elements. These can include hypermedia, or hyperlinks that take the user further down the
Projects (57)
A Study of Transnational Jewish Relief Networks and the Emergence of Jewish Internationalism in Central and Eastern Europe, 1860s – 1870s. History Faculty Milena Zeidler
Agora Oxford e-Research Centre
APGRD - Archive of Performances of Greek and Roman Drama Classical Languages Felix Budelmann
Autonomous Morphology in Diachrony: comparative evidence from the Romance languages Medieval & Modern Languages Faculty John Charles Smith
Bibliography of British and Irish History History Faculty Ian Archer
Bodleian First Folio Bodleian Digital Library Systems & Services Pip Willcox
Boethius in Early Medieval Europe English Faculty
Book of Curiosities: An early 11th-century Arabic cosmography Oriental Studies Faculty Jeremy Johns
British Archaeology at the Ashmolean Museum: Rationalisation and Enhancement of the Historic Collections Ashmolean Museum Alison Roberts
British National Corpus IT Services Lou Burnard
Centre for the Study of the Cantigas de Santa Maria Portuguese Stephen Parkinson
Congo Journey Pitt Rivers Museum Haas Ezzet
Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative Griffith Institute Jacob Dahl
Cutting Edge: Revealing hidden stories in a cross-cultural collection of arms and armour : 2006-08 Pitt Rivers Museum Haas Ezzet
David Hume Archive Philosophy Faculty Peter Millican
Diachronic Corpus of Sumerian Literature Oriental Studies Faculty Jacob Dahl
Digital Ashmolean Cuneiform Ashmolean Museum Jacob Dahl
Discovery: Digital semantic corpora for virtual research in philosophy Oxford e-Research Centre Paolo D'Iorio
DiXiT: EC Marie Curie ITN on Digital Scholarly Editing IT Services James Cummings
Domesday Text Project Pilot Theology and Religion Faculty Katharine Keats-Rohan

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People (37)
Abigail Williams Lord White Fellow in English, Professor of Eighteenth-Century Literature English Faculty
Alexander Huber Digital Librarian Bodleian Digital Library Systems & Services
Amanda Flynn Digital Editor Digital Collections Development
Annamaria Carusi Senior Research Associate Oxford e-Research Centre
Chris Powell Data Architect Ashmolean Museum
David Robey Digital Humanities Consultant Oxford e-Research Centre
Emma Huber UKOLN, Work Package Leader, IMPACT Project; Oxford, EEBO Reviewer Linacre College
Giles Bergel Digital Humanites Research Officer, Faculty of Engineering Science Engineering Science
Greg Kochanski Linguistics, Philology & Phonetics Faculty
Greg Parker Technical Director, Beazley Archive Classical Archaeology
Gábor Mihály Tóth Doctoral student History Faculty
Henriette Roued-Cunliffe Graduate Student Classics Faculty
Ian Archer Fellow and Tutor in Modern History History Faculty
James Cummings Senior Academic Research Technology Specialist, Academic IT, IT Services, University of Oxford IT Services
Jennifer Bunselmeier DPhil student German
Jenny McAuley Postdoctoral Research Associate English Faculty
Jonathan Prag Associate Professor in Ancient History / Fellow and Tutor, Merton College Ancient History
Judith Siefring Head of Digital Research, Bodleian Libraries Bodleian Digital Library Systems & Services
Katharine Keats-Rohan History Faculty
Kelsey Rubin-Detlev Foote Junior Research Fellow in Russian, The Queen's College Russian

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